Students who learned from materials containing both text and graphics produced 55 percent to 121 percent more accurate solutions to problems, according to David Taylor at the University of Maryland. The use of images, along with words, diminishes the overwhelming nature of text and helps the student to manage the cognitive load, which increases retention. Specifically, graphics are found to support retention because important elements are focused on via placement, layout and color. Activation of prior knowledge is engaged quickly with visual analogy, and mental models are created easily as diagrams can enhance understanding of how a concept works. Additionally, learning is made easier because simulations allow students to visualize real-life situations, and motivation is increased as students are able to see the relevance of skills.